AFRO-BRAZILIAN ART FOR WHAT’S SAKE?




TEXT BY ALEXANDRE ARAÚJO BISPO AND RENATA FELINTO
THIS TRANSLATION WAS ENCOURAGED BY THE GOETHE-INSTITUT
TRANSLATION BY SARA HANABURGH
REVIEW BY LAIS KALKA
MARCH/ 2016




The title of this text paraphrases, in a sense, that of the seminal work by critic and art historian, Aracy Amaral: Art For What’s Sake? Social Concern in Brazilian Art, 1930-1970 (1984) 1. In the book, the author discusses the imperative that art maintain dialogue with the reality not only of professionals in the field of the arts, such as critics, dealers, artists, gallery owners and collectors, among others, but also that it reflect on society and its problems, and that art provide a critical and reflective framework for the world in which we live and that it connect with the simple appreciation of art.


It is this relationship between art, society and human beings that this text will present, however, from the perspective of African heritage and what has come to be known as Afro-Brazilian art. Can we assert that a production of Afro-oriented visual arts exists in Brazil, one that is inspired by themes, problems and the national historical experiences of Brazilians of African origins?


Yes, we can. Provided we make the distinction between art in the general sense and Afro-Braziian art in particular. Thus, in order to respond with the pertinence of this expressive production in the democratic and urban context, we decided to write this text, teasing out the discussion regarding the fact that art is a form of knowledge that is intimately connected to people’s social experience. This experience provides inspiration for a variety of artistic expressions: drawing, painting, sculpture, art objects, installations, photography, video and performance.


From Antônio Francisco Lisboa, aka Aleijadinho (1738-1814), to contemporary artists, we will see that Afro-Brazilian art has transformed in time and space, not only by maintaining African knowledge and technical skills, specialized gestures, but also by being open to the incorporation of new approaches, and each artist approaches the problems that interest him in his own way.


The idea here is that we will present expressive elements, artists, works of art and concepts that permeate the understanding about that which, ultimately, can be referred to as Afro-Brazilian art. Although we help to define it, our aim is to zoom in on it in order to show its potential as a revealing concept of a rich production, which in no way intends to reduce the artistic activity of the artists designated as “Afro-Brazilian”.


We will divide this segment of Braziian art history focusing principally on black artists in four periods beginning with the 18th century, add subsequently references to artists from the 19th century, then move into the modernist and post-modernist production of the 20th century and finally shed light on the emerging artists of the 21st century that skillfully condense and redefine all that has been done up to that point in terms of an art that dialogs with the idea of Afro-Brazilianness, Negritude, mixed races and identity.



18th CENTURY
FROM TRADITIONAL SCULPTURES TO BAROQUE WOODCARVINGS


Undoubtedly, the talent demonstrated by enslaved Africans, who during this first period of Brazil’s slave trade derived from the populations of the Bantu linguistic branch, together with creole and mestizo, was critical to the unique configuration of the Baroque that developed here. Critical because the men who mastered the crafts of wood carving and metalwork used their ancestral knowledge to stimulate the Brazilian economy in various ways. In colonial Brazil, almost everything was produced by the enslaved black population, from residences to wooden statues of saints used for requests and prayers. African technical skills were thus critical to the structural framework of this Brazil that was emerging, even if this fact is not presented in the History books used by the majority of institutions of primary and secondary education.


In the 18th century, the participation of blacks and mestizos in the production of arts and crafts was more significant in large centers, such as Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. It was visible, for instance, in wooden sculptures, also referred to as carvings, in architecture, goldsmithery, painting and music, where blacks and mestizos worked under the orders of Portuguese masters in trade corporations or as emancipated groups.


The dominance of wood as primary material for the representation of tridimensional shapes was a tradition of the Bantu peoples. So, for the enslaved population working in trade corporations, the handling of tools and the manipulation of equipment to work this material was very probably something relatively simple, since they already possessed the necessary accumulated knowledge. In fact, we know today that enslaving African peoples that possessed such skills was fundamental to the success of the exploitative enterprise of the colony.


More than a few blacks and mulattos anonymously left their marks on the artistic production of the first Brazilian art movement, which was already known in the historiography as mulatto art, as it included white Portuguese, black Africans, indigenous and mulattos. In this view, we can highlight the names of Afro-descendent artists.


In painting we have, for example, the works of two artists from Rio de Janeiro: Leandro Joaquim (1738-1798), who was also an architect and choreographer, and Manoel Dias de Oliveira (1764–1837), known as “Brasiliense,” who was also, as far as we know, the first public professor of drawing from Brazil. Also worth mentioning are the names of the freed Bahian mulatto, José Theófilo de Jesus (1758–1847), a painter and a gilder; and from São Paulo Jesuíno Francisco de Paula (1764–1819), who also worked as an architect and a musician and who upon becoming a widower dedicated himself to the orders of the priesthood adopting the name by which he eventually came to be known, Friar Jesuíno do Monte Carmelo.


In sculpture, noteworthy names include the Bahian Francisco Chagas, known as the “Goat,” whose biography is scantly known; and the two sculptors from Minas Gerais, Valentim da Fonseca e Silva (1745–1813), Master Valentim, the son of a diamond contractor and a Creole (a black woman born in Brazil), and the son of an Angolan architect, Antônio Francisco Lisboa (1730–1814), who went down in history as “Aleijadinho”.


Certainly, the artistic production of Antônio Francisco Lisboa in several cities of Minas Gerais and of Master Valentim, in the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, are the most expressive among those of the artists cited above. It is noteworthy that both were sons of African mothers and Portuguese fathers. Mestre Valentim was educated in Portugal, where he traveled with his family returning to Brazil following the passing of his father, whereas Aleijadinho received his artistic training from his father, the renowned architect, Manuel Francisco Lisboa. Both greatly influenced the artists of the regions where they produced their work, in the schools of Minas Gerais and Rio state.


According to scholar Myriam de Andrade Oliveira, they are: “(...) true artists and not mere imitators, both introduced innovations into the adaptation of European models to colonial ways, especially those of international Rococo, the predominant style of the period in vogue in Europe, in the second half of the 18th century”. 2


Aleijadinho stood out for his religious works, whereas Valentim was best known for his works of urbanization. The important works of Antônio Francisco Lisboa are housed in the Church of the Third Order of Saint Francis of Assisi in Ouro Preto and that of the same name located in São João Del Rei. The Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, in Congonhas do Campo, is his most important work of international renown, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.


According to scholar Jaelson Bitran Trindade, the only group of freed black and mulatto officials known to date is Aleijadinho’s. 3


Noteworthy works by Valentim include the park Passeio Público (1779–1783), the Fountain of Marrecas (1789), the Fountain of Saracuras (1795), the iron sculptures, the first die-casts in Brazil, Nymph Echo (1783) and Narcissus the Hunter (1785), the originals of which are housed in Rio de Janeiro’s Botanical Garden and São Paulo’s Pinacoteca do Estado. It is important to underscore that blacks and mulattos did not commonly achieve the status of master.


Observing the works may lead you to ask what they have that is African. Aesthetically, and considering that the period during which they lived, there was no interest in African heritage; what was produced was sacred Christian art based on European canons and other work that served to urbanize the recent capital of the country with the arrival of the Real Family in 1808.



19th CENTURY
FOR MUCH BEYOND RELIGION, OTHER GENRES OF PAINTING


Although Master Valentim is considered one of the pioneers of neoclassical aesthetic elements in his oeuvre, also considered Rococo, it was with the arrival of the French Artistic Mission in Brazil in 1816 that this style would be spread widely and be considered in opposition to previously dominant styles: the Baroque and Rococo. According to the Oxford Dictionary of Art, the neoclassical seeks to “recreate the heroic spirit, much like the decorative patterns of Greek and Roman art;” it is from the imitation of the Greeks in particular that the modernists became great artists. Valentim, as we have seen, returns to a Greek mythological theme in his work Narcissus and Echo. The iron mold is indicative of the new art materials in a different way to the use of wood characteristic during the previous period. The woodcarvings lead to modeling, die-cast molds and marble. Easel painting is introduced as well by the mission that created the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts (IAFA), its building only ready in 1826. From this institutionalization of art education in Brazil by means of the IAFA, different genres of painting were taught: historical painting, portraits, landscapes and still lifes. If historical painting is going to be the most important genre, and its greatest Brazilian representatives the painters Pedro Américo (1843-1905) and Victor Meirelles (1832-1903), in the field of still lifes, it is the black painter, Estevão Roberto da Silva (1844-1891), who stands out, and whom we discuss further below.


Among the effects of the establishment of the neoclassical style in Brazil is the dismantling of old religious arts guilds, in which masters and apprentices worked in the service of the church: their main client. Artistic production was, until then, considered a mechanical manual activity, that essentially blacks and mulattos made together. In this new form of systematic and theory-based visual arts learning, the students were evaluated for admission through performance on exams and the academic learning of disciplines like drawing classic statues, perspective, light and shadows among others; the most prodigious students were awarded in competitions with trips abroad; and if up until then the majority of artists making painting, sculpture and architecture were black and mulatto, from that moment forward came the rise of white artists like Meirelles, Américo and, more towards the end of the XIX century, women, too, such as Georgina de Albuquerque (1885-1962). The dominant theme of the Christian religion in the former period opens space now for the multiplicity of genres taught in the academy.


Like Valentim in the field of sculpture, José Theófilo de Jesus (1758-1847) painter, gilder, mulatto Bahian, and the favorite apprentice of José Joaquim da Rocha (1737-1807), is one of those artists whose hybrid production brings together elements of the baroque, rococo and classicism. He is considered one of the best painters of the Bahian school of painters and we know the neoclassical style in his work not only from his treatment of some mythological and historical themes, but also by the influence he received between the years 1797 and 1802, when he was in Portugal for his studies, a trip financed by his master. At that time, Theófilo came into contact with the works of the famous Italian painter Pompeu Batoni (1708-1787) in the Basilica da Estrela in Lisbon.


If Theófilo is an artist of transition, hybrid, without a defined style, who did not have any contact with the IAFA, the black painter Estevão Roberto da Silva (1845?-1891) is considered by the critics of the time one of the best painters of still lifes, a genre that was in extreme opposition to historical painting – then the most valued in France since the 18th century – to represent the French republic and exalt the glories of empire in Brazil. Scholar Marcelo de Salete explains to us that this painting of still life “executed with expertise” by Silva “was considered the high point of the genre” presenting “well defined lines” and “vivid colors” typical of the neoclassical aesthetic. 4


In spite of his recognized talent, Estevão Silva suffered all the constraints of his condition of being a black man living in a society with a strong tradition of enslavement. In 1879, at IAFA’s annual exposition of the most outstanding painters of still lifes, Silva, the critic’s favorite, won second place but refused the prize before Dom Pedro II (1825-1891). In response to his indiscipline, he was expelled from IAFA for about a year. This reinforces a notion still pervasive in Brazilian society today that blacks are naturally inferior in comparison with whites. The artist was not expelled from the academy thanks to the support of other artists, his colleagues who asserted that his attitude was justifiable due to his “lack of intelligence”. 5


Therefore, as Salete tell us, his confrontational attitude acquired a childish flair, in such a manner that he could not be held responsible for what he had done.


The brothers Artur (1882 1922) and João Timóteo da Costa (1879-1932) studied with Rodolfo Amoedo (1857-1941), João Zeferino da Costa (1840-1916), Daniel Bérard (1846-1910) and Henrique Bernardelli (1857–1936), all prestigious Brazilian artists of the period. Awarded at different times with trips abroad, the Timóteo brothers began their studies at the Casa da Moeda in Rio de Janeiro and, later, in 1894, at the National School of Fine Arts. Artur traveled to Paris in 1898 where he stayed for about two years, and João went to the same city in 1910. As both became more and more exposed to modern innovations, they increasingly distanced themselves from the neoclassical style they were taught at the academy and in many of their works the influence of impressionist and post-impressionist approaches was apparent. It was about a new way of seeing in which they had to experiment with the natural light and colors outside of the studio. As for the themes in their work, in Artur’s his interest in the representation of black individuals stood out as well as work relationships, as in The Forge (1911), whose social thematic, as we will see, would remain present in Brazilian modernism that looks to the avant-garde and at the same time to Brazil’s roots with relative solidarity in relation to the black population. Together, in 1920, the brothers produced the first in a series panels for the Fluminense Soccer Club, finished only by João in 1924 after Artur’s death in 1922 in the Hospício dos Alienados (Mental Hospital), where João would also later die. Despite their innovation and awards in and outside of Brazil, the Costa brothers, especially Artur, did not become a reference for the modernists.


Additional black artists emerged, including, from IAFA, Crispim do Amaral (1858-1911), Firmino Monteiro (1855-1888), Horácio Hora (1853-1890), Rafael Pinto Bandeira (1863-1896); as well as other artists who were not from this school, for instance, Emanuel Zamor (1840-1917), the mulatto painter and stage designer who studied at the famous Julién Academy in Paris.



20th CENTURY
BLACK SUBJECT AS SYMBOL OF BRAZILIANNESS AND MARGINALITY


As we study Modernism, although no mention is made of Afro-descendent artists, but of the representation of black or mulatto as subjects in paintings and sculptures, this does not mean they did not exist as artists. In the Arts, the black individual and the process of mixing races had been esteemed as qualities of Brazilian culture that distinguished it and increased its value in comparison to North American and European cultures. In the late 19th century, both had been taken as defining indicators of the country’s degeneration and backwardness. Contributing to the discourse that this was a positive transformation was the publication of the classic work by Gilberto Freyre (1900-1987): The Masters and the Slaves (1933) in which the black African subject and mixed races are analyzed from an optimistic perspective. In other words, Freyre did not attribute the country’s backwardness to the black population. However, in society, Afro-Brazilian cultural manifestations still remained largely marginalized and repressed to the extent that in order to arrive at acceptance of mixed races, it had to undergo a process of assimilation and whitening:


“The dish, feijoada, for example, until then known as ‘slaves’ food,’ from the 1930s was reconstructed as ‘national dish,’ carrying with it the symbolic representation of mixed races (…) Capoeira, suppressed by the police at the end of the 19th century and included as a crime in 1890 Penal Code, was made an official national sport in 1937. Samba also emerged from its position of marginality and took to the streets as samba schools and their parades started to receive official funding in 1935”. 6


Artists such as Tarsila do Amaral, Cândido Portinari, Emiliano Di Cavalcanti, Alfredo Volpi, Lasar Segall and Djanira da Morra e Silva, among others integrated these themes into their paintings. Djanira, for instance, exalted the orixás, the Yoruba gods, until then little represented as a theme and characteristic of Brazilian culture. Nevertheless, the works of black artists, such as Heitor dos Prazeres (1898-1966), Benedito José Tobias (1894–1963), Benedito José de Andrade (1906 –1979), Wilson Tibério (1923–2005), Sérgio Vidal (1945) and Yêdamaria (1932), were obscured and we can affirm that they are indeed representative of an Afro-Brazilian modernism that was focused on the visibility of Afro-Brazilian culture, and more precisely, in a parochial domain, on the daily life of black families. Each of them represented this day-to-day family life in his masterpiece. Prazeres saw the life on Rio’s hills as illustrations of Cartola’s (Angenor de Oliveira) sambas; Vidal, as his apprentice, idealized black families in a romantic mode; Tibério depicting the religions of African origin and Yêdamaria portraying the reality of black families who had already overcome poverty with her elegantly set tables, highlighted customs of upbringing and civility.


Let us consider the works by Wilson Tibério and Yêdamaria which, as it were, also incorporate one of the preoccupations of the classical modernists which is the experimentation of the pictorial innovations provided by the studies of the European avant-garde, such as Cubism, Futurism, and Constructivism, among others.


Yêdamaria was the first black professor at the Faculdade de Belas Artes, UFBA (College of Fine Arts, Federal University of Bahia) and the first black Brazilian woman to win a scholarship for a Master’s program in Fine Arts in the USA. During that time, when she came into contact with the questions raised by the Black Power movement in the 1970s, after having painted boats and landscapes in Brazil, she identified with the struggle of the black men and the black women for civil rights in Brazil. She began painting and making collages of Yemanja, however the orixá was represented as white, and she asserted that “it wasn’t the figure of Yemanja; it had nothing to do with us.” After this experiment with the religious theme, she began to work uniquely on still lifes painted on large canvases. As if she were heiress to Estevão Roberto Silva, nowadays she paints many cups, pitchers, dishes, flowers, napkins, and tables set in reverence to her family, whose table was a symbol of fraternal union. She interpreted her output as a reflection on her own vivid memories, which countered the recurrence of black, poor families that were socially and emotionally dysfunctional.


Wilson Tibério, born in Porto Alegre, was a painter and sculptor, who began to study art at a young age as a scholarship recipient at the National School of Fine Arts, subsequently went to hone his skills in Europe, passing through several countries. He also visited several African countries. Thus, as was true for Yêdamaria, it was his experience abroad that influenced Tibério to return to Afro-Brazilian themes, from portraits to Candomblé scenes.


In this Afro-Brazilian modernism it’s the intimate, family-oriented and religious experience that defines the artists’ interest. Perhaps due to a lack of critical interest in the period, it is difficult to find information about the works and, at times, even on the biographies of the artists.



21st CENTURY
THE AFRO-BRAZILIAN ARTIST SPEAKS OUT


The contemporary production of the 21st century also presents Afro-Brazilian artists who, inspired by themes, experiences and problems common amongst themselves and the black and Afro-descendent population, problematize in their works the body, gender relations, religious practices of African origin, and memory, history and black identities. From Rubem Valentim (1922-1991), the artist who, inspired by the African manifestations present in Brazil through Candomblé and Umbanda, praised the mixing of races; to Master Didi (1917-2013), who works with expressive techniques and ways of making artistic rituals of Candomblé, paying homage to the gods of the land at the nagô pantheon; to Rosana Paulino (1967) and her treatment of the relationship between biography and black feminine socio-historic experience, Afro-Brazilian art signals the importance of historical diversification of visual arts production in Brazil. This diversification is more explicit in contemporary art, which has been vastly broadening its interests. The journal, Menelick Act 2, has been a source for discussion about these and other artists individually or collectively, hence we are now bringing other names that are emerging on the national art scene and whose productions, those that fit into this category, help us to understand the potential of these artists within the broader context of Brazilian art. The aim of this distinction is not to reduce the expressive or conceptual reach of these works of art, but rather to extend their capacity for dialog with the public. Affirming this intention is important to show that the role of this art segment is not to illustrate social issues as in a political pamphlet.



FORMAL RESEARCH


We begin to address the theme of contemporaneity by presenting the work of an artist who despite being black is not inspired by the Afro-Brazilian theme; nor does it evoke any elements of this universe. He is not the first to do this; long before him Antonio Bandeira (1922-1967) also distanced himself from the thematic, gradually moving toward informal abstraction of which he became a master.


Wagner Viana was born in 1981, in São Paulo. A professor of Art in the public system, a doctoral candidate in visual poetics at ECA-USP, with a Master’s in Visual Arts from the Art Institute of Unesp and an undergraduate degree in Fine Arts from the College of Arts, Architecture and Communications UNESP–Bauru, Viana has been interested in color as an element that circulates socially and geographically and incorporates in these displacements the names of places from where they come. His poetics is structured around abstract formalism, apparently cold and distant, since we don’t know the conditions of production of his work, in which he displays great interest in the behavior of colors in installations such as: “Projeto Terra de Pirapora 23º 25’ 0” Sul e 47º0’0” Oeste” (Project Land of Pirapora 23º 25’ 0” South and 47º0’0” West) that was exhibited in the exposition Afro as Ascendency Art as Origin at Sesc Pinheiros between December 2013 and March 2014 in São Paulo.



REPRESENTATIONS OF BODY AND GENDER


Continuing in the path forged by Rosana Paulino (1967) who since the beginning of her career has been discussing the relationship between race, the body, gender and the history of the black woman in Brazil, Janaína Barros and Renata Felinto take the body as expressive platform. Janaína Barros is from São Paulo, born in 1979, holds a Master’s in Visual Arts and a Bachelor’s in Fine Arts from the Art Institute at UNESP with a specialization in Visual Languages from Santa Marcelina College. Interested in the discussion about memory, the body and black cultural identity and handiwork, the artist has reconstructed the relationship between the black woman and domestic manual labor in a series of works completed over the last four years, as in Bulina-me (Feel Me Up, 2010), in which a kitchen apron is illuminated with sequins, bringing together domestic chores (back) and partying (front). The name of the piece is embroidered in red thread on an opaque material of the same color, inviting us to get closer to it. Delicately, the artist sews clothes for ordinary objects like kitchen gloves, bag dispensers, blender, positioning artifact and gender intimately close to one another. Such garments, given the care put into making and decorating them, hide unequal relationships of gender and social class, as in the work Sou todo seu (I’m All Yours), in which the artist reflects on the desire of the black woman, often frustrated, on her as object of desire, and on finding emotional refuge in a relationship that is equal and respectful.


Renata Felinto, from São Paulo, was born in 1978, is a businesswoman, cultural producer, writer and doctoral candidate in visual arts at UNESP, and holds a Master’s in Visual Arts and a Bachelor’s in Fine Arts from the same university. She specialized in Curatorship and Education in Art Museums at MAC/USP. In her most recent work, the artist who is deeply interested in family portraits, her own and of other people, makes her own self portraits like Brigite Bardot, Kim Bassinger and Marilyn Monroe, famous seductive, smiling blonds. She forces relationships of alterity and without negating them transforms herself into them. In doing so, the stars of Hollywood cinema are anthropophagously assimilated. Felinto questions socially constructed beauty standards, which are passed off as natural by mass culture. By playing with blond hair, a color that in Brazil has many positive representations and indicates the desire of men and women around this erotic symbol, the effect is a hybrid, ironic and comical image. Here, there is a parody of the figure of Adelaide, a highly negative representation of the Brazilian black woman from one of Globo Television Network’s shows, “Zorra Total.” In White Face and Blonde Hair, a part of the project Também quero ser sexy (I Also Want to Be Sexy, 2012), she invested in transvestism and social class and made a self-portrait in which she was a blond squandering wealth and a capacity to consume luxury items available in São Paulo’s Oscar Freire Street, in which she put on a disconcerting performance for those who ended up being her public without even knowing they would be.



THE MATERIALITY OF HISTORY


Thiago Gualberto, from Igarapé, Minas Gerais, was born in 1983. He studied at the School of Fine Arts at the Federal University of Minas Gerais, completed his undergrad in Textiles and Fashion at USP, and currently lives in São Paulo. The ethno-racial theme has been present in his work since he began exhibiting it, while still in Minas, in 2005. Such as Sidney Amaral (1973), an artist introduced in the journal Menelick Act 2 in March 2012, Gualberto puts his own experience into play, articulating it in an imaginative and intelligent mode within the context of Brazil’s history. On his website we read: “Tiago Gualberto, carrying out research on his own identity, crosses the memory of the black man with the process of mixing races that was carried out through experiments in our country.” Installations and objects make up his oeuvre, and he doesn’t seem to have a preference regarding which materials he uses – in principle he is interested in match boxes, disposable coffee percolators, lamps that were burnt out, and reproductions of photographs. In turn, the expressive technique recurrent in his work is printmaking, the medium he uses to create or rework different interpretations of Brazilian art icons. This is the case of the work O Mestiço (The Mulatto, 1934) by Candido Portinari (1903-1962). It is precisely this work that inspired the illustration of the special edition ZER011. In it the Portinarian figure turns into a paper doll that can use different types of clothes and accessories: dark glasses, a cap, a motorcycle helmet, a sweatshirt, and a cell phone. The reader can cut the image out of the front cover and make his own composition, personalizing his own mulatto.

Obviously, Gualberto’s oeuvre is more extensive, but we chose this easily visual example that might even be there, in your house, right now.



FINAL OBSERVATIONS


In this text we have presented a portion of Afro-Brazilian art, a segment of the national art history that runs from the Baroque colonial through the contemporary art period. Our objective was not to cover all existing production, since in the past it was rather vast and still very unknown, and in the present tends to grow given the process of democratic qualification that allows artists to problematize their subjective experiences and social identities. As a direct result of this artistic activity, the demand for visibility of the past and the present emerges. Gone are the days when black artists were brought to mental hospitals to die, like the Timóteo brothers, or killed themselves, as Emanuel Zamor did. Another time, old beefs, and new social conditions exist to deal with the various forms of racism that have flourished over time immemorial and which are presently being updated.


To answer the question posed at the beginning: Afro-Brazilian art for what’s sake? We would say that it’s to expand the supply of multicultural works that bring out the diversity of Brazilian culture which, even in the field of contemporary art, still very elitist, are generating new art, visions, and experiences that are subjective and socially diverse.







NOTES


1 – In this book, the author cites Mário de Andrade who said: “all art is social because every work of art is a relational phenomenon between human beings”.


2 - Aleijadinho and Master Valentim, text by Myriam Andrade Ribeiro de Oliveira.
In: Afro-Brazilian Laborers: Implications of Their Historic Contribution.
Organization: Emanuel Araújo
Official Press of the State of São Paulo
Afro-Brazil Museum, São Paulo, 2010.


3 - Colonial Art: Corporation and Slavery, text by Jaelson Bitran Trindade.
In: Afro-Brazilian Laborers: Implications of Their Historic Contribution
Organization: Emanuel Araújo
Official Press of the State of São Paulo
Afro-Brazil Museum, São Paulo, 2010.


4 - Black Artists of the XIX Century, text by Marcelo de Salete
In: African and Afro-Brazilian Cultures in the Classroom: knowledge for teachers techniques for students.
Renata Felinto Organization
Fino Traço Publishing
Belo Horizonte, 2012.


5Black Painters of the Eighteen Hundreds
José Roberto Teixeira Leite
MWM Motors Brazil/ K Editions
São Paulo, 1988.


6 - Racism in Brazil
Lilia Moritz Schwarcz
Publifolha
São Paulo, 2001.







ALEXANDRE ARAÚJO BISPO is member of the editorial board, he is Master in Social Anthropology and social Scentist by FFLCH / USP, is an art critical, curator and researcher.


RENATA FELINTO is member of the editorial board, she is PhD in Visual Arts by Arts Institute of UNESP, is a researcher, VISUAL artistic and teacher.


http://omenelick2ato.com/files/gimgs/509_mv-4.jpg
ALEIJADINHO (1730 – 1814)
NOSSA SENHORA DAS DORES, MADEIRA PLOCROMADA - MINAS GERAIS (SÉCULO XVIII). ALTURA: 83 CM - ACERVO DO MUSEU DE ARTE SACRA DE SÃO APAULO
http://omenelick2ato.com/files/gimgs/509_mv-3.jpg
MESTRE VALENTIM (1750 – 1813)
NINFA ECO (1783), ESCULTURA EM BRONZE - 178 X 81 X 80 CM - ACERVO DO INSTITUTO DE PESQUISAS JARDIM BOTÂNICO DO RIO DE JANEIRO
http://omenelick2ato.com/files/gimgs/509_mv-2.jpg
MESTRE VALENTIM (1750 – 1813)
NINFA ECO (1783), ESCULTURA EM BRONZE - 178 X 81 X 80 CM - ACERVO DO INSTITUTO DE PESQUISAS JARDIM BOTÂNICO DO RIO DE JANEIRO
http://omenelick2ato.com/files/gimgs/509_mv-7.jpg
ARTHUR TIMÓTHEO DA COSTA (Rio de Janeiro/RJ – 1882 – 1922)
RETRATO DE NEGRO, 1906 - ÓLEO SOBRE TELA, 48 X 57 X 9,5 cm - ACERVO DO MUSEU AFRO BRASIL/ SP
http://omenelick2ato.com/files/gimgs/509_mv-5.jpg
YEDAMARIA (1932)
http://omenelick2ato.com/files/gimgs/509_mv-6.jpg
YEDAMARIA (1932)
BARCO NA RAMPA, 1964 - ÓLEO SOBRE TELA 75,2 X 100,5 X 3,5 cm - ACERVO DO MUSEU AFRO BRASIL/ SP